When transporting natural gas or carbon dioxide in a pipeline solids called hydrates can form and aggregate, leading to blockages. The Fluid Science & Resources group is in possession of the latest generation micro-mechanical force apparatus (MMF), one of only three in the world. The MMF is used to study the cohesive & adhesive forces of microscopic solids. The MMF can also quantify the impact of pipeline injection chemicals on these cohesive & adhesive forces. The Fluid Science & Resources group uses the MMF to study the cohesive forces of clathrate hydrates and asphaltenes.